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Forest Health Advisory System Theme Art
National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior Logo
Cedar Breaks National Monument
Forest Health Advisory
Natural Resources Stewardship and Science
Biological Resource Stewardship Management Division


America’s forests provide ecological, social, and economic services to our Nation. An important aspect of maintaining and enhancing a healthy forest is to protect and restore forests from insects and diseases that cause high levels of tree decline and mortality.

The US Forest Service conducted the 2013-2027 National Insect and Disease Forest Risk Assessment to provide a nationwide summary of the potential susceptibility to tree mortality caused by major forest pests. Results for the Cedar Breaks National Monument are presented below to inform assessments of natural ecosystems and prioritize potential management for pest prevention, suppression, and restoration.

This advisory is designed to raise awareness about forest health concerns and provide common ground for consultation between NPS staff and forest health specialists. Impacts summarized below assume no active management during a 15-year (2013-2027) time frame.

What is at Risk and What are the Threats for Cedar Breaks National Monument?

Within Cedar Breaks National Monument 413 acres are susceptible to high levels (≥25%) of overall tree mortality. 15% of the tree biomass is at risk to forest pests.

Modeled Impacts to Host Tree Species
Host Tree Species Loss, % of Host Loss, % of All Trees
Engelmann Spruce 25% 5%
Douglas-fir 23% 4%
White Fir 17% 4%
Quaking Aspen 16% 1%
Ponderosa Pine 10% 1%
Subalpine Fir 9% 2%
Limber Pine 8% <1%
Modeled Tree Species Composition
Tree Species Prevalence, % of All Trees
White Fir 25%
Engelmann Spruce 19%
Subalpine Fir 16%
Douglas-fir 16%
Ponderosa Pine 7%
Rocky Mountain Juniper 6%
Curlleaf Mountain-Mahogany 4%
Quaking Aspen 4%
Limber Pine 2%
Note: only up to 9 of the most prevalent modeled species are listed.
Modeled Impacts by Forest Pest
Forest Pest Loss, % of Host Loss, % of All Trees
Spruce Beetle 22% 4%
Douglas-fir Beetle 21% 3%
Aspen / Cottonwood Decline 16% 1%
Fir Engraver 9% 2%
Roundheaded Pine Beetle 5% <1%
Mountain Pine Beetle 5% <1%
Western Balsam Bark Beetle 4% 1%
Western Spruce Budworm 2% 2%
Root Disease(s) – Unspecified 2% 2%
Modeled Forest Pest/Host Combinations
Forest Pest Host Tree Species
Roundheaded Pine Beetle Ponderosa pine
Mountain Pine Beetle Limber pine, ponderosa pine
Douglas-fir Beetle Douglas-fir
Spruce Beetle Engelmann spruce
Western Balsam Bark Beetle Subalpine fir
Fir Engraver White fir
Western Spruce Budworm Douglas-fir, Engelmann spruce, subalpine fir, white fir
Root Disease(s) – Unspecified Spruce/fir spp.
Aspen / Cottonwood Decline Quaking aspen
Note: percentages in all tables are based on basal area. Basal area (or biomass) is the cross-sectional area of trees measured 4.5 feet above the ground.

Interactive Maps 

pest layers theme art
NIDRM composite theme art
Composite Pest Risk
pest image for Spruce beetle
Spruce Beetle
pest image for Douglas-fir beetle
Douglas-fir Beetle
pest image for Aspen / cottonwood decline
Aspen / Cottonwood Decline
pest image for Fir engraver
Fir Engraver
pest image for Roundheaded pine beetle
Roundheaded Pine Beetle
pest image for Mountain pine beetle
Mountain Pine Beetle
pest image for Western balsam bark beetle
Western Balsam Bark Beetle
pest image for Western Spruce budworm
Western Spruce Budworm
pest image for Root Disease(s) – Unspecified
Root Disease(s) – Unspecified
host layers theme art
White fir image
White Fir
Engelmann spruce image
Engelmann Spruce
Subalpine fir image
Subalpine Fir
Douglas-fir image
Ponderosa pine image
Ponderosa Pine
Rocky Mountain juniper image
Rocky Mountain Juniper
Curlleaf mountain-mahogany image
Curlleaf Mountain-Mahogany
Quaking aspen image
Quaking Aspen
Limber pine image
Limber Pine
comparative layers theme art
Insect and Disease Survey (last 5 years)
Layer Information for Insect and Disease Survey (last 5 years)
Moisture Deficit and Surplus: 5-Year Avg (2014-2016)
Layer Information for Moisture Deficit and Surplus: 5-Year Avg (2014-2016)
Moisture Deficit and Surplus: 3-Year Avg (2014-2016)
Layer Information for Moisture Deficit and Surplus: 3-Year Avg (2014-2016)
Moisture Deficit and Surplus: 1-Year Avg (2016)
Layer Information for Moisture Deficit and Surplus: 1-Year Avg (2016)
NPS Wildland Fire Event
Layer Information for NPS Wildland Fire Event
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Potential Management Strategies & Key Contacts

IMPORTANT : The following potential management strategy options are generalized for a wide range of conditions and are not meant to provide specific prescriptions, but instead an introduction to a range of management options. Forest treatments for tree killing insects and diseases are just one aspect of forest management. Site specific recommendations should be determined by Forest health and other land management specialists during field visits.
Potential Pest Management Strategies – Depending on Local Management Objectives
STRATEGY Aspen / Cottonwood Decline Douglas-fir Beetle Fir Engraver Mountain Pine Beetle Root Disease(s) – Unspecified Roundheaded Pine Beetle Spruce Beetle Western Balsam Bark Beetle Western Spruce Budworm
Detection & Monitoring - Can prevent a pest from increasing to damaging levels and reduce tree mortality, when early detection is followed by a rapid response
Monitor for population fluctuation, establishment, range expansion - traps, aerial/ground survey x x x x x x x x x
Prevention - Making forests more resilient and reducing pest hazard
Increase species diversity - planting, seeding, tree removal, etc. x x x x x x x x
Limit movement of firewood x x x x x x
Manage age class/stand structure, Increase age class diversity - planting, tree removal, etc. x x x x x x x
Preventive pesticide treatments x x x x x x
Reduce stand basal area to increase vigor of remaining trees - preventive thinning, prescribed burning, etc. (timing can be critical to reduce and not exacerbate pest threat) x x x x x x x
Reduce susceptible species and unhealthy trees x x x x x x x x x
Restoration - Re-establishing processes necessary to facilitate forest sustainability, resilience, and health
Reforestation - replant existing or alternative native species or silvicultural systems that promote natural regeneration x x x x x
Salvage and dead (hazard) tree removal x x x x x x x x
Prescribed burning x x
Suppression - Reduce the overall damage to forest resources from outbreaks of insect and disease-causing pests
Pesticide and biocontrol application x x x x x
Sanitation - removing, cutting and treating/pruning infested trees/ remove/treat blow down or slash x x x x x x x
Semiochemicals/Trap trees x x x x
Removal of all host trees x
Key Contacts: To learn more about forest pests and options for their management, please contact your local forest health expert, or your NPS Integrated Pest Management Coordinator:
Myron Chase
Region: NPS Intermountain Region
IPM Coordinator
Phone: 303-969-2863

More Information on Current Pest Conditions & Risk Assessments